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List of textile industry in India – Bombay Dying

List of textile industry in India - Bombay Dying

List of textile industry in IndiaBombay Dying

 

List of textile industry in IndiaBombay Dying History of first 100 Years.

 

 

 

14/9/2021,

most successful of India’s 637 textile mills. It has been my privilege to serve the Company during the last 48
years of its growth, which would not have been possible without the vision of the founder.
It was on the 23rd day of August one hundred years ago that my grandfather, Nowrosjee N. Wadia, founded the ( List of textile industry in India )
Bombay Dyeing & Manufacturing Co., Ltd. Bombay then was nothing like it is today. Its population had not
yet reached 700,000; its people lived a quieter life than we shall ever know again. From the summit of the 280-
foot Rajabai Clock Tower – which, by coincidence, was built in 1879, the year of the Company’s founding
– it was possible to survey the entire city. From this prominence one could see, in the distance, the chimneys
of the textile mills, among them that of Bombay Dyeing. They were far fewer then than now. And although
Bombay had already established itself as a textile center, it was at least as well known for being India’s principal
market for horses from Arabia and one of the chief transfer points in the opium trade – which was then
second only to cotton in export value, with a turnover of some £6 million a year.
It is a story well worth telling: the development of a textile operation that has reached its 100th birthday
showing no sign of age; indeed, enjoying greater health and prosperity than ever before. The story is told, in
words and pictures, in this centenary book. I would like to dedicate it to the founder, Nowrosjee Wadia, to Sir
Ness, who built up the Company during his 46 years as Chairman, to the thousands of men and women, the
millhands and officers, staff and technicians, Directors and shareholders, our agents and representatives, our
merchants and distributors, and to our customers in India and throughout the world, who together, over the
last 100 years, have written the story that is recorded in these pages.

textile industry in India - Bombay Dying - Management

textile industry in India – Bombay Dying – Management

But the look of the future was already stamped on that century-old scene. Next to New Orleans, in the US,
Bombay was the largest cotton port in the world, and presented the evidence in the great quantities of kapas
stored in the open at the Cotton Green in Colaba: a veritable mountain of it measuring 12 square miles.
Today, nearly all the cotton coming to Bombay vanishes into the godowns of the mills, and then into the looms,
from which it spreads across India and the world – millions upon millions of square metres of cloth in a
bewildering range. The country’s textile industry has expanded almost beyond measure since the time when
my grandfather began the dyeing of yarn – the first such operation in India – under the same corporate title
that the Company bears now. ( List of textile industry in IndiaBombay Dyeing has expanded along with the industry,
until today it is among the largest, most modern and All the plant and machinery, even the super Sulzers, will
have faded into the past 100 years from now. But the legacy which all these men and women of the past have
left to those who follow must not and cannot be allowed to fade: the Company’s reputation, based on high
principles of ethics, reliability, pride in the product, fair dealing and integrity. If the inheritors of that legacy
guard these principles jealously, the flag of Bombay Dyeing will fly as proudly on its second centenary as it
does today.

Neville Wadia, Bombay Dying

Neville Wadia, Bombay Dying

Neville N. Wadia
Honorary President
Bombay Dying, 5 August, 1979

 

THE WEAVER

WEAVER - Bombay Dying

WEAVER – Bombay Dying

Against the giant textile operation of which he is a part, Arvind Trimbak Khopde, 27, would seem to cast a very
small and insignificant shadow indeed. He is only one of 14,000 millhands employed by the Bombay Dyeing &
Manufacturing Co., Ltd., ( List of textile industry in India ) as it enters its second century. Each year it consumes 20 million kgs. of baled cotton
and 2.7 million kgs. of synthetic fibres and from this produces some 87 million linear metres of cloth, in more
than 600 varieties. Of Bombay Dyeing’s annual wage bill of Rs 172.35 million, Arvind Khopde’s earnings
compose the tiniest fraction, scarcely big enough to measure: On the average, Rs 10,000 a year. The function
he performs was not even a part of the Company’s activities during its first quarter century.
And yet this humble worker deserves ranking as the most important and conspicuous figure in Bombay
Dyeing. Figuratively, he stands taller than the Company’s chimneys, spearing 200 feet into the sky; larger than any
mass of factory buildings and statistics, of men and machines. For he is a weaver and, as such, he is far more
the Company’s trademark than the familiar scales on which bolts of Bombay Dyeing fabrics, weighed against
a silver ingot, tip the balance. It is this man, multiplied 1,300 times into the Company’s full complement of
weavers, all of them controlling 3,036 looms, that everyone else in ( List of textile industry in India ) Bombay Dyeing, from its chairman to
the lowliest sweeper, exists to serve. From these looms, under his direct supervision, flows the broad, endless
ribbon of cloth, in a riot of colours and designs, that is Bombay Dyeing’s contribution to the textile requirements
of India and the world. Arvind Khopde is a second-generation weaver, having followed his father’s footsteps into Bombay Dyeing,
and he works a third-generation loom. During its first 100 years, the Company expanded to a size that staggers
the imagination. Its pulse beat is the throb of three thousand looms tirelessly weaving cloth, 24 hours in a
day, seven days in a week. One way, the best way, to understand what ( List of textile industry in India ) Bombay Dyeing is all about is to close
in on the slender figure of the weaver Arvind Khopde, standing attentively by his looms. He is the key that
unlocks the mysteries of the process, that reduces it to human size and understanding.
Arvind Khopde awakens at five, before the sun has hurdled the rooftops, for he is working the morning
shift and must be at the mills by seven. He does not own an alarm clock and does not need one. On the previous
evening, composing himself for sleep, he instructed his mind to rouse him at the designated hour. Unfailingly,
it obeys. By his side, his wife Kamal, 21, stirs into consciousness and rises to prepare the morning meal.
The other members of the household, who have con- siderately spent the night on beds laid in the central

The Weaver with family - Bombay Dying

The Weaver with family – Bombay Dying

corridor, respecting the privacy that husband and wife deserve, now join them: Arvind’s brothers, Suryakant,
24, and Shreekant, who is 3. There is another – Arvind’s mother Hansabai, a handsome woman of 45 — but at
present she is in hospital undergoing treatment for a minor disorder of the spine.
The Khopdes’ living quarters are simple to the point of austerity. They consist of a single small room and
cooking alcove in building G-7 of the chawls (tenements) erected 60 years ago by Bombay Dyeing for its workers;
it was one of the first textile mills in India to provide such shelter for its labour force, at heavily subsidised
rates that even then brought the rooms within reach of a millhand’s pay packet. These chawls stand on the
grounds of ( List of textile industry in India )Bombay Dyeing’s Spring Mills plant, a great convenience to someone working there, as did Arvind’s
father, Trimbak Khopde, 57, at one time before his retirement in 1972. On a weaver’s earnings, Arvind can
afford more spacious accommodations, but he is content with what he has, and even more so with the rent: Rs.8
per month, plus another Rs.5 for electricity — about one-tenth of what he would pay for equivalent space in
the private sector. Building G-7 encloses 62 other house- holds, all of them ( List of textile industry in India ) Bombay Dyeing millhands and their
families. Arvind is comfortable in their society. He would not think of leaving.
The sun is up now, and by its strengthening light the family sits to the breakfast Kamal has cooked over a

The weaver wife - Bombay Dying

The weaver wife – Bombay Dying

brass spirit lamp: peas in oil, potatoes diced in their skins, rice and cinnamon-flavoured tea. The meal eaten,
Arvind is off to work after bidding his wife good-bye. The leave-taking is almost formal. Kamal is a shy girl,
daughter of a farmer, brought up in the traditional ways, who met her husband-to-be for the first time on their
wedding day in 1976, in the Maharashtra village of Wai, where Arvind was born. Modestly, she averts her eyes
and half-conceals her face with her sari. With the patience of habit Arvind stands in the bus
queue, idly hoping that a double-decker will come: the top level commands a better view along the 4-km.com-
mute to Bombay Dyeing’s Textile Mills on Elphinstone Road, where Arvind is employed. Getting to the mills
and back does not put him much out of pocket: 20 paise each way.
Having punched the time clock, Arvind Khopde takes his place in the Textile Mills’ Sulzer loom shed, so-called
after the high-speed, highly automated Swiss looms that in 1973 began to replace earlier model machines. As a
Sulzer weaver, Arvind has reached the summit of his craft. There are four of these giant machines in his
charge, each costing up to Rs 1 million installed. A man has to earn the right to operate such sophisticated
equipment, the very latest in loom design. It took Arvind many years to develop the skill that places him where he
is today.

brass spirit lamp: peas in oil, potatoes diced in their skins, rice and cinnamon-flavoured tea. The meal eaten,
Arvind is off to work after bidding his wife good-bye. The leave-taking is almost formal. Kamal is a shy girl,
daughter of a farmer, brought up in the traditional ways, who met her husband-to-be for the first time on their
wedding day in 1976, in the Maharashtra village of Wai, where Arvind was born. Modestly, she averts her eyes
and half-conceals her face with her sari. With the patience of habit Arvind stands in the bus
queue, idly hoping that a double-decker will come: the top level commands a better view along the 4-km.com-
mute to Bombay Dyeing’s Textile Mills on Elphinstone Road, where Arvind is employed. Getting to the mills
and back does not put him much out of pocket: 20 paise each way.
Having punched the time clock, Arvind Khopde takes his place in the Textile Mills’ Sulzer loom shed, so-called
after the high-speed, highly automated Swiss looms that in 1973 began to replace earlier model machines. As a
Sulzer weaver, Arvind has reached the summit of his craft. There are four of these giant machines in his
charge, each costing up to Rs 1 million installed. A man has to earn the right to operate such sophisticated
equipment, the very latest in loom design. It took Arvind many years to develop the skill that places him where he
is today.

WEAVER - with Sulzer machine Bombay Dying

WEAVER – with Sulzer machine Bombay Dying

He was more fortunate than most in that he served his apprenticeship under his own father, a veteran weaver
who first joined ( List of textile industry in India )Bombay Dyeing in 1943. In 1971 Arvind went to work in the same Platt loom shed — the name
again deriving from the looms clattering and banging beneath the slanted roof. Like the weavers who man
them, looms evolve too, constantly improving in design and performance to produce superior textiles in ever-
increasing quantity. The Platt looms, built in England, represent the first
generation of power looms to be installed by Bombay Dyeing, beginning in 1904. In their time they were the
best to be had, and they vastly increased the productivity of the mills. At one time, Bombay Dyeing‘s complement
of Platts stood at 3,834. But technology and progress have consigned them to the past, and today their number
has dwindled to 472. Within five years or so these hardy survivors will all be sold or scrapped.
Arvind was again fortunate in breaking in on the Platt looms, which, although electrically powered, are not
automatic, and so demand of the weaver a higher degree of vigilance and skill than later types. Unlike succeeding
generations of looms installed at Bombay Dyeing — the  Rutis, also Swiss-made, which were introduced in 1956,

and the Sulzers the Platts lack the ability to signal to the weaver when a break in the threads occurs. Since
there can be as many as 8,000 warp (or vertical) threads – or ends, as they are known in the textile industry
in some varieties of cloth, breaks in the yarn are common. Unless the weaver’s attentive eye observes the break and
locates it among the thousands wound on the weaver’s beam, the Platt loom will go on weaving mindlessly
anyway, producing a fault in the cloth. Moreover, this early power loom cannot replenish its supply of weft (or
horizontal) yarn,which is shot back and forth across the face of the loom in wooden carriers called shuttles. A
Platt weaver must also keep his eye on the shuttle, and as its supply of weft yarn diminishes, he must stop the
loom and replace by hand the emptying shuttle with a fresh one.
These are exacting tasks. Arvind Khopde learned them at an apprentice’s earnings of Rs 65 per month. He
learned them so well, in fact, that within four months he was promoted to substitute weaver, at Rs 400 a
month. And when, three years later, the first of the Sulzer looms began arriving from Europe, his supervisors
considered it unnecessary to try him out on the second- generation Ruti looms, the first of the automatic

mac- hines to be installed at Bombay Dyeing. These looms,
2,256 of which are still performing efficiently after more than 20 years service, not only automatically stop when
a thread breaks, but also identify to the weaver the site of the break. Nor does the machine halt when the supply
of weft yarn in the shuttle is exhausted; a new pirn of yarn is automatically inserted from a battery of pirns at
one end of the loom, without the intervention of the weaver
With the Sulzer looms, the factor of human fallibility and error is almost completely eliminated. They have no
shuttles. Instead, the weft thread is propelled across the loom face at speeds of up to 120 kpm – too fast for
the human eye to see — drawn by a bullet-shaped metal device appropriately called a projectile. Since the pro-
jectile is far smaller than any shuttle, the thousands of warp yarns, endlessly shifting up and down to capture
the flying weft yarn, need not be spread so widely as on its predecessor, the Ruti, thereby considerably reducing
the strain on the warp yarns and, as a consequence, reducing the number of breaks. Typically, a warp end,
or thread, snaps only four times per hour on the Sulzer loom. Breaks in the weft thread, which is subject to less
strain, occur only once every five hours, or fewer than two per shift. Besides tying these occasional breaks in
the yarn, the Sulzer weaver’s only other function is to replenish, as necessary, the supply of weft yarn, which
is wound on cones or “cheeses” capable of carrying as much yarn as 20 pirns. On the average, the Sulzer weaver
replaces the supply of weft yarn once an hour

WEAVER - with co workers in canteen Bombay Dying

WEAVER – with co workers in canteen Bombay Dying

The Sulzer looms also produce cloth at a rate superior to any of its predecessors. If the cloth being woven is
standard shirting, for instance, a Sulzer can turn out some 210-220 linear metres in three shifts, or 24 hours,
as against 60-80 metres for the second-generation Rutis and the first-generation Platts. Moreover, the operation
of the Sulzers is more continuous, averaging a down time of only 10% to the Rutis’ 15% and the power
looms’ 30%. On this particular morning, two of the four Sulzer looms in Arvind Khopde’s charge are among 20 which have
been steadily producing, for export to the US, cloth of so high a quality that the old Platt looms cannot weave
it at all. Designated as Quality No. 4036, this cloth is a grey sateen, 100% cotton, and of a high lustre owing to
the manner in which it is woven. Bombay Dyeing‘s Sulzer looms have been producing for this export order steadily
since the first such looms were installed five years ago; this portion of it, amounting to 350,000 linear yards to a
width of 54” after shrinkage, will occupy Arvind Khopde and other weavers for some months to come. With an
end count of 85 threads to the inch, Quality 4036 is rated as a coarse weave, but that is no measure of its quality.
The customer, a jobber in New York City, is so satisfied with Bombay Dyeing‘s production that only 2% of the
run fails to meet his demanding specifications, which are higher than those of India’s domestic market
Quality No. 4036 is not finished cloth. Shipped to the customer in America,

WEAVER - with co workers in play ground Bombay Dying

WEAVER – with co workers in play ground Bombay Dying

it will there undergo further pro- cessing, e.g., bleaching and printing, before becoming the “furnishing” material that, one day, as handsome
printed or dyed draperies, will frame American windows and doors. Nevertheless, many hands and many pro-
cesses have intervened before the grey yarn reaches Arvind Khopde’s looms. Bombay Dyeing‘s raw material
is cotton that has been ginned (a process that removes most but not all of the seeds and impurities) and com-
pressed into 170-kg. bales. This cotton must undergo six or more separate treatments before it is ready to be spun
into yarn; further steps are required before the yarn – the weft wound on cheeses or cones, the warp on huge
cylinders called weaver’s beams and holding up to 7,000 linear metres (250 kgs.) – is ready to be made into cloth.
En route, the cotton will change form several times, from a kind of coarse fleece called a lap to a multiple
strand of fibres, some 1/8th to 1/16th of an inch in diameter, known as a roving.
The qualifier “grey,” as in a grey sateen, indicates that the yarn has not been bleached; cloth woven from grey
yarn is known as loom-state cloth. To convert loom- state into finished cloth may take as many as a dozen
steps, of which bleaching is only one; and the production of Weaver Khopde’s two looms which are filling domestic
orders will be sent to the New Bleach Works to undergo some or all of these further steps. In the case of Quality
No. 4036, which is destined for shipment to the US to become furnishings, it will receive final processing
after arrival.

Before Weaver Khopde’s work day ends at 3 in the afternoon, his four Sulzer looms will have turned out
some 346 running metres of grey sateen three times the production rate of the same number of Ruti machines.
The untiring looms will not rest even during Arvind’s half-hour lunch break; a fellow weaver will take over
when he leaves, about 11 in the morning, for the workers’ canteen. There, vegetarian Khopde is served a thali:

rice with curry, three puris, a vegetable dish, pickles and papad. This nourishing meal costs him 80 paise – a
little more than half the cost to the mill of its preparation, Sometimes, when their lunch hour coincides with his,
Arvind’s two cousins join him, the sons of his Uncle Dashrath Bapurao Khopde. For the Khopdes, working
for Bombay Dyeing is very much a family affair, and these members of the second generation have developed
the same sense of belonging that kept Arvind’s father in the Company’s employ for 29 years.
At 3, Arvind Khopde hands over to the next shift. By 3.30 he is back at the chawl — unless he has broken his
trip somewhere along the route to buy Kamal the material for a new choli (blouse) from one of the 30 Bombay
Dyeing stockists in Bombay. As an employee he is entitled to a 10% discount on anything that the Company
manufactures. Or he may do the marketing for Kamal’s larder. As the man of the house, he does all the shopping;
true to her conventional upbringing, Kamal would not dream of leaving the chawl without her husband or
another member of the immediate family. The Khopdes live a plain life. In his bachelor days,
Arvind amused himself mainly by attending the cinema every other day. Now, this treat is limited to once a
fortnight. Sometimes, but not invariably, he takes Kamal along. On the chawl grounds, before the sunlight fails,
he plays Kabadi (Cup o’ Tea) with his neighbours. Once a week the entire fan goes to the Hindu temple, an
easy stroll away; but everyday there is a puja in the privacy of their little room.
On this day, Arvind and his two brothers take time to pay a visit to their mother, who had come down from
Wai, 250 kms southeast of Bombay, because of the better medical facilities available in the city. She will go
back when she is well. Some year, many years from now, Arvind will follow her there. He was born in Wai, and
his roots are planted deep in the rich soil. “My mother- land is everything to me,” he says simply. By motherland
he means, not India, but the village itself, where seven generations of his family have tilled the earth.

WEAVER - with family in wadala Temple Bombay Dying

WEAVER – with family in wadala Temple Bombay Dying

It is this desire that sent Arvind Khopde to Bombay in 1971 and that now dictates the frugality of his life in the
city. Land is dear and can feed only so many mouths. Arvind’s father received 5 acres from his own father’s
15 acres, which were equally divided among three sons. From what he saved in his 29 years at Bombay Dyeing,
Trimbak Khopde was able to add another five acres, so that now there are ten, planted to sugar cane, gram,
jowar, red chillies and turmeric. This small holding produces Rs 10,000 every year, beyond the family’s
own needs, but it will not be enough for the generation of Khopdes yet to come, including Arvind’s children as
they arrive.
That is why nearly half of Arvind’s monthly income, which averages some Rs 880 now that he has been pro-
moted to knotter/gaiter, the next step up the ladder, is put aside against the day he goes back to the land. By
Bombay standards, Arvind is well-to-do, and would have bought himself a motor scooter if his father had
not overruled this extravagance. In the Provident fund, Arvind now has Rs 10,000 — half of that figure con-
tributed by Bombay Dyeing. Another Rs 1,300 draws interest in the Bombay Dyeing Co-operative Credit
Society, a kind of savings bank for company workers and managed by them. And each month his private savings
account in the State Bank of India grows by Rs 300. At one time it totalled Rs 20,000 until Arvind sent half of
it to his father, for improvements on the family house in Wai, which will one day belong to him as the eldest son.
he says, As long as his future is assured, Weaver Khopde is in no hurry to abbreviate the years between now and then. He
is an ambitious and capable man who does his work well and is probably destined for further promotions. “If I
can continue to work for Bombay Dyeing”, “I wouldn’t mind at all becoming a silver wallah like my
father” – referring to the silver medal that, since 1959, has been bestowed on every ( List of textile industry in India ) Bombay Dyeing employee
with 25 years of service. Today there are more than 4,000 silver wallahs and some 300 gold wallahs, those who
wear the gold medal given to anyone with 40 years in the Company’s employ.

WEAVER - with Mother in City Hospital Bombay Dying

WEAVER – with Mother in City Hospital Bombay Dying

This, too, is what Bombay Dyeing is all about the silver wallahs and the gold wallahs, a large and ever-growing
portion of the labour force, who have spent much of their lives adding, in their diverse ways, to the endless
ribbon of cloth flowing from the looms, and who look upon the company not only as a place of work but as the
foster parent of a rather sizeable family. It is difficult to conceive of one without the other. And in the person of
Arvind Khopde, and of his father the silver wallah before him, one can perceive the shape of the future, as Bombay
Dyeing embarks on the next one hundred years.

 

 

 

 

 

The Bombay Dying - The first Hundred Years 

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Vaibhav Jagtap Founder of Postbox India Postbox India is a Blogging & News Website which is a best website when it comes to blogs and news. We provide the best, authentic, famous, awesome and most relevant blogs and news for viewers who always wants to love to read news around the world and for the people who loves to read blogs. This website was created by Vaibhav Jagtap who is a visionary Blogger, Media Journalist and a Social Media Influencer. Vaibhav Jagtap is a very famous, hard-working, talented and Experienced person in the industry. Vaibhav had 14+ year experience in various media like film-making, film post-production, Animation, graphics & visual effects. He also have experience in freelance Journalism, Content Writing & Copy writing Background.. He have Hardcore Experience In Vfx & Post Production and also have Industry Experience Of Film, Serial, Documentary, Short Films, Web-Series, Media News & Video Content With Shoot Supervision & Production. He was Trained For film Stereoscopy By The In- Thrigue Trainers From California, USA And Have Extensive Training For Stereo Compositing. Vaibhav had lot of UK, USA, India based creative corporate company & post production studios experience. Vaibhav started Postbox India with a vision to provide a platform for New & Existing talented people who are creative blog writers, Journalist, Digital Marketing Executives & Agencies, PR Houses and all the people in the industries. Along with this vision Vaibhav also provides services which are essential for these fields such as Software Development, Website Development, Animation, VFX, Digital Marketing and much more. You can check all these services from more menu on the website.
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